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TOEFL Sample Questions : Reading Comprehension

Read the following passage and answer the questions below by selecting the correct option from the given five options.

The large waves that once resulted in huge devastations on the shores of Japan were addressed by the term "Tsunami". The term "Tsunami" generally refers to the waves generated in the oceans. These waves are very different from the normal oceanic waves. In simple English the meaning of tsunami is "harbor wave". The wavelengths of these waves are very high and they range between 10 km to 500 km. The tsunami waves also travel with a great speed of upto 700 km per hour. Since, they travel with such great speed, sometimes it happens that two different waves appear as one single wave. But, this is not the case. In fact there are multiple waves which are at a very short distance from one another or a few minutes apart from the consecutive wave.

There are a number of factors that lead to the condition of tsunami. The major cause of tsunami is the displacement of the large volumes of water which takes place suddenly because of some geographical disturbances in the earth's crust. These displacements are so powerful that they result in waves of very high wavelengths. But, it is no compulsion that both the site of tsunami and the place where it has affected must be the same at all time.

As the waves generated are powerful enough to cause large displacement in huge water bodies and because of their high travelling speed, the site of occurrence may be at one point of the globe whereas the site of action may be some other point on the globe. The common causes of tsunami include earthquakes, landslides as well as volcanic eruptions. In addition to these factors, the impact of meteors could also be the reason for tsunami sometimes.

When the earthquakes take place at the depths of the oceans it results in large disturbance in the water beds leading to the occurrence of tsunami. Another cause of tsunami is the landslides. The landslides that take place underwater or even the coastal landslides can result in tsunami because as large volumes of surfaces fall in the ocean water, it may result in enough displacement of water leading to tsunami. These landslides can also result from the earthquakes.

Tsunamis can be caused even by the volcanic eruptions. Explosions such as submarine explosions or the collapse of the large crater at the top of the volcano and even the massive pyroclastic flows can also result in tsunami as they can cause sufficient displacement of water.

In addition to these factors, another cause of tsunami could be the impact of the meteors. The probability that the meteors may land in the ocean is very high because the two third part of the surface of the earth is covered with water and hence this may cause tsunami.

Questions:

Question 1

The term tsunami is originated from which language?

  1. Hindi
  2. English
  3. German
  4. Japanese
  5. None of the above

Correct answer: d

Question 2

What is the meaning of the term tsunami in simple English?

  1. Port harbor
  2. Water harbor
  3. Sea harbor
  4. Harbor wave
  5. None of the above

Correct answer: d

Question 3

The probability that the meteors may land in the ocean is very high because?

  1. Two third part of the surface of the earth is covered with water
  2. Meteors can fall only in water and not on land
  3. Meteors fall only on land and not in water
  4. Tsunami occurs only in water
  5. None of the above

Correct answer: a

Question 4

Which of the following is one of the major factors that can lead to tsunami?

  1. Rainfall
  2. Soil erosion
  3. Planting more trees
  4. Volcanic eruption or explosion
  5. All of the above

Correct answer: d

Question 5

The large waves that once resulted in huge devastations on the shores of Japan were addressed by which of the following term?

  1. Tsunami
  2. Volcano
  3. Earthquake
  4. Impact of meteor
  5. None of the above

Correct answer: a

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