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TOEFL Sample Questions : Reading Comprehension

Read the passage carefully and select the correct answer for each of the question based on the passage.

The problem of floods is increasing day by day due to a lot of reasons. The two major reasons or causes for increase in the probability of floods are changing environmental conditions leading to more severe and intense rainfall as well as developments on the flood plains. These developments, themselves, have led to the risk of downstream floods.

Tidal flooding is another major cause of flood. When a low pressure area is created, the sea and the river water may cause tidal waves of a great height and breach their defenses leading to floods. The storms and winds of very high speeds result in tall waves. Also, the low pressure belts raise the sea levels way above the normal level increasing the chances of floods. Not only this, but the solar and lunar eclipse also have an effect on the height to which the sea levels raise.

Floods that have their onset as sea and rivers often occur suddenly and are also driven by extreme forces. This results in more devastation and more loss of life. For instance, when the east coast of the United Kingdom was hit by such a storm it took lives of around 307 individuals, and around 1835 people in Holland. But, you can easily tack such floods with the help of a little forecast and geographical tracking and can prevent huge physical as well as economical losses. You can also limit the duration of such floods if the drainages are available in such areas.

Other cause of floods is melting of ice or snow in the areas near the banks of rivers. When the ice or snow in the areas surrounding the river banks start melting, they increase the level of river water which can also result in floods. Moreover, this can also happen when there are heavy and intense rainfalls in such regions. This cause of flooding is referred to as fluvial flooding. Even the blockage of water courses as well as the flood channels may result in such situations. Moreover, the locking of tides also falls under this category of cause of floods. This type of flooding has been observed in the year 2007 in the river Humber in Hull's Severn Valley. In the year 2006, the Carlisle on the river Eden also reported such floods due to this reason. The onset of these kinds of floods is slow which increases gradually.

When there is flooding in the floodplains due to rivers, such type of cause is referred to as flash flooding. Though the onset of such floods may be slow, but they may come more hazardous with time and cause great danger to the social and economic life in the affected area.

Another cause of floods may be ground water. The low lying areas are often getting flooded frequently every time the water level rises above a certain level. These types of floods are very seasonal. Hence, if a track is maintained about the weather conditions in such areas from time to time, then it is easy to limit the losses. These floods also have a slow start.

Questions:

Question 1

What is the initial speed of the ground water when it is cause of flood?

  1. Fast
  2. Slow
  3. Medium
  4. Very high
  5. All of the above

Correct answer: b

Question 2

When the floods are caused by the melting of ice or snow in the areas near the banks of rivers, this cause of flooding is referred by which term?

  1. Ground water flooding
  2. Fluvial flooding
  3. Alluvial flooding
  4. Flash flooding
  5. None of the above

Correct answer: b

Question 3

When there is flooding in the floodplains due to rivers, such type of cause is referred to as?

  1. Flash flooding
  2. ground water flooding
  3. Fluvial flooding
  4. Bank flooding
  5. None of the above

Correct answer: a

Question 4

The fluvial type of flooding was observed in which year in the river Humber in Hull's Severn Valley?

  1. 2010
  2. 2007
  3. 2006
  4. 2005
  5. None of the above

Correct answer: b

Question 5

Where the fluvial type of flooding was reported in the year 2006?

  1. In the Carlisle in the river Eden
  2. In the Severn valley of Humber
  3. In the silicon valley of India
  4. In the valleys of Mexico
  5. None of the above

Correct answer: a

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