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SAT Sample Questions

Reading Comprehension

Read the comprehension and answer the following question:

Some opinionated thinkers believe that freedom and equality cannot go together. They think that liberty implies the freedom to do what one would wish to do. This is true if freedom is deduced in its total sense to mean that each human being shall be free of charge according to his prospect, there will be disorder. It is a session of history that at whatever time people are permissible to do as they wish the clever and more proficient used their freedom to ponder all wealth and authority in themselves to the unhappiness and domination of the rest. Visibly the off-putting view is described by those who fit in to advantaged section of society and for this reason search for the preserve class quota for the sake of their vested benefit. They believe that parity is unachievable in conditions of such unobstructed freedom. Lord action therefore says, "The obsession of impartiality made vain the anticipation of freedom." The exponents of this view held that liberty is natural, equality is not. Nature itself created differences. For example some are intellectuals, others are not. Liberty means freedom that is no restriction, equality needs some restrictions. This is against the principle of liberty. The institution of property is a natural institution and therefore should not be restricted by equality. Perfect quality is only possible when enforced by state. This means the power of state will increase. Excess power of the state is harmful to the liberty of the people. Moreover state has produced many evils of capitalism. It has encouraged exploitation. It has given protection to the capitalist. Such a state cannot give a perfect quality. So the hope of liberty also vanished away. The democracy is said to be a system based on equality and Liberty. But unfortunately the democracy is becoming elites, democracy or dollar democracy. Either this is controlled by educated class or by the capitalist. Presence of elite or capitalist is inequality. Hence equality and liberty appear opposed to each other. The Liberals as well as Marxists have asserted that liberty and equality are not opposed to each other. Liberty has no meaning if it is not enjoyed by all. All may enjoy liberty only when privileged classes are abolished in the society. In a society of unequal freedom becomes a farce. What is the use of the expression of thoughts, when some are deprived?

A sound public view cannot be created. That is why R.H. Tawney observes that a large measure of impartiality as far from being unfavorable to liberty is necessary to it. If there is just liberty, there will be disorder. The liberty will be oppressed for individual profits. Dunham writes, a grouping of men whose public role consists of taking proceeds from other people's work can have no deep belief in equality and organization as preferred ideals. Thus freedom desires equality so that there is no consideration of assets in one or few hands. The Marxists have gone to the amount of saying that freedom and equality are closely related for an open society. The liberals think that equality can never be victorious till there is ideal liberty with impartiality. Laski a champion of open-mindedness writers, there cannot in a word be self-governing government without equality and without self-ruled government there cannot get freedom. Democracy is based on following equality. Political equality is not probable without social and financial equality. In the deficiency of economic equality, some social class will control politics and in the absence of economic equality liberty is just a myth. People may enjoy real liberty only where social and economic quality is established, this will make democracy successful.

Thus we find that liberty without quality is pointless. We may take pleasure in liberty only when there is wonderful equality. If liberty is to be viewed as optimistic thing then impartiality is pre-requisite. The Marxist clearly affirmed there is dissimilarity in the society due to the organization of personal property. Many modern liberal writers articulated the relation between belongings and equality but Marxists systematically examined the question of impartiality in relation to belongings. They maintained  an egalitarian society one will work according to one's capability and each will get according to one's requirement. The Marxists maintain that opinionated and social equality is a fairy tale without financial equality. In the deficiency of financial equality those holding the means of invention will control politics. They decline that the state can make impartiality in a class separated society through wellbeing measures. They consider that social possession of the means of construction in a given civilization is a pre conditioned for economic equality. The Marxists believe that all difference cannot be removed. They sat communist equality presupposes the abolition not of all dissimilarity and such conditions as would go up to a dissimilarity in the social location of people.

  1. What is the suitable title for the comprehension?

    1. Liberty and Equality
    2. Impartiality
    3. Disinterest
    4. Lack of concern
    5. None of the above

    Answer (a)

  2. When will people enjoy real liberty?

    1. When there is no perfect equality in the society
    2. When there is perfect equality in the society
    3. When there is perfect liberty in the society
    4. When there is no perfect liberty in the society
    5. None of the above

    Answer (b)

  3. Marxist clearly stated there is inequality in the society due to

    1. the institution of private property
    2. the institution public property
    3. the institution government property
    4. the institution municipal property
    5. None of the above

    Answer (a)

  4. Marxists scientifically analyzed the question of equality in relation to -- -- --

    1. Assets
    2. Goods
    3. Property
    4. Material goods
    5. None of the above

    Answer (c)

  5. Excess -- -- -- of the state is harmful to the liberty of the people

    1. Power
    2. Control
    3. Authority
    4. Manage
    5. Organize

    Answer (a)

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