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LSAT Sample Questions

Logical Reasoning

  1. A study of a math program implemented in several pre-schools indicates that children who received the specialized Math Plus math education between the ages three and five had significantly higher math scores in 3rd and 4th grade than their classmates who did not receive this instruction. The proponents of the math argue that the introduction of this program for all children age three to five will significantly improve their chances for success in school.

    Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the above argument?

    1. Most parents send their children to preschool for social development and do not have a clear idea about what types of education they want for their children.
    2. Cognitive abilities of 3- to 5-year-old children are constantly changing.
    3. The children in the pre-schools that were studied had previously been exposed to another math enrichment program.
    4. Children are not really interested in enrichment programs in preschool.
    5. The cost factor needs to be specified and established before a large scale program can be undertaken.

    Ans : C

  2. The symptoms of mental disorders are behavioral, cognitive, or emotional problems. Some patients with mental disorders can be effectively treated with psychotherapy, but it is now known that in some patients' mental disorders result from chemical imbalances affecting the brain. Thus, these patients can be effectively treated only with medication that will reduce or correct the imbalance.

    The argument depends on assuming which one of the following?

    1. Treatment by psychotherapy can produce no effective reduction in or correction of chemical imbalances that cause mental disorders.
    2. Treatment with medication always shows faster results for patients with mental disorders than does treatment with psychotherapy
    3. Most mental disorders are not the result of chemical imbalances affecting the brain.
    4. Medication is always more effective in treating patients with mental disorders than is psychotherapy.
    5. Treatment with psychotherapy has no effect on mental disorders other than a reduction of the symptoms.

    Ans : A

  3. Dear Editor: I feel obliged to comment on the unfair review you published last week written by Robert Duxbury. Your readers should know that Mr. Duxbury recently published his own book that covered the same topic as my book, which you asked him to review. It is regrettable that Mr. Duxbury should feel the need to belittle a competing work in the hope of elevating his own book.

    The author of the letter above makes her point by employing which method of argument?

    1. Attacking the motives of the author of the unfavorable review.
    2. Attacking the book on the same topic written by the author of the review.
    3. Contrasting her own book with that written by the author of the review.
    4. Questioning the judgment of the author of the unfavorable review.
    5. Stating that her book should not have been reviewed by the author of a competing work.

    Ans : A

  4. The government of Zunimagua has refused to schedule free elections, release political prisoners, or restore freedom of speech; therefore, no more financial aid from the United States should be provided to Zunimagua.

    Which of the following is an assumption made in the argument above?

    1. Withdrawal of U.S. aid from Zunimagua will force a change in the policies of its government.
    2. The people of Zunimagua would be better off if their present despotic government were overthrown.
    3. The government of Zunimagua is dependent on continued U.S. aid for its existence.
    4. U.S. aid should be given only to countries willing to adopt policies in line with U.S. interests and goals.
    5. U.S. aid should be withdrawn from any country that refuses to operate its government along democratic lines.

    Ans : E

  5. Many people argue that the death penalty deters murder. However, the notorious killer Ned Grandy deliberately moved to a state that imposes the death penalty just before embarking on a series of ferocious murders. Thus, it seems clear that the existence of the death penalty does not serve as a deterrent to murder.

    The argument above may best be characterized as:

    1. an appeal to emotion.
    2. a flawed analogy.
    3. a general conclusion based on a specific example.
    4. circular reasoning.
    5. an application of a general principle to a specific example.

    Ans : C

  6. Steve and JoAnne are both members of a certain club, though they are not speaking to each other and refuse to work with each other. Cecily, the club president, is appointing members to the fundraising committee, but she has resolved that she will not appoint anyone without his or her explicit consent. Steve tells Cecily, "I will not consent to appointment on that committee unless I know whether JoAnne is to be a member of it." And JoAnne says, "I will not consent to be a member of that committee unless I know whether Steve will be appointed to it."

    If all three of these people stick by these resolutions, then:

    1. Neither of them can be appointed to the committee.
    2. The situation described in the scenario cannot arise, because it is inherently incoherent.
    3. They must either both be appointed or both be left out.
    4. The committee may finally have one of them, both of them, or neither of them as members.
    5. Either one of them can be appointed, but not both.

    Ans : E

  7. Russia's aggressive fishing in the prime fishing grounds of the Northern Pacific has led to a sharp decline in the populations of many fish and a general increase in the retail price of fish. This same pattern has occurred with far too many of our scarce vital natural resources, resulting in high prices for many products. It is likely then, that fish prices will continue to rise in the near future.

    In making the argument above, the author relies on all of the following assumptions EXCEPT:

    1. The scarcity of fish is a determining factor in its price.
    2. The decline in the number of fish available will result in higher prices for fish in stores.
    3. There will not be any substantial decrease in other costs involved in the fishing process that could keep the price of fish from increasing.
    4. Fish populations will not recover in the near future.
    5. Fishing practices can substantially influence the demand for fish.

    Ans : E

  8. During the past year, Boz Corporation, a cigarette manufacturer, has engaged in a "corporate image" advertising campaign. One executive now urges that the advertising be extended for another year because profits have increased by 29% over the previous year. Another executive, however, is skeptical. She observes that the increases are typical for the industry over the past year, although none of their competitors have used corporate image advertising.

    The most accurate way of summarizing the second executive's point would be:

    1. She argues that the effect may not really be due to its supposed cause because there has not been a sufficient lapse of time between the cause and the effect.
    2. She argues that the assignment of a cause for this effect is premature, because there is as yet no well-established theory of such interactions.
    3. She argues that corporate image advertising is unprofitable, since it has evidently benefited competitors as much as the corporation that paid for it.
    4. She knows that effective advertising requires a constant influx of new ideas and approaches, and she argues that one year of corporate image advertising is enough for awhile.
    5. She argues that the effect may not be due to its alleged cause since the same effect is found elsewhere without that cause.

    Ans : E

  9. The senate candidate expressed outrage that few judges have any background in technology, yet they try to resolve cases involving high tech companies. He stated that not one federal judge has a degree or any experience in computer technology.

    A promising response to this concern, arguing that things are not as bad as they might seem, could involve which of the following claims?

    1. Most of the public policy questions in this area are really about the morality and the value of scientific and technological developments. They do not require much technical understanding beyond that of a layperson.
    2. Computer scientists, by and large, have little interest in politics and public policy. It would be difficult to find scientists with the degree of commitment required for a serious contribution to the judicial system.
    3. There is a lack of people who are qualified in both technical and legal areas of expertise.
    4. There is very little opportunity for, and indeed little need for, technical expertise in the judicial branch. There is therefore almost no way for a technical specialist to rise through the ranks to a top-level position in government.
    5. The rewards of a life as a judge, in terms of both money and prestige, are not high enough to attract top-flight technical experts to this area.

    Ans : A

  10. There has been a sharp increase in the subscription prices of many professional and scholarly journals in the past seven years. Many publishers ascribe the necessity for these increases to the easy availability of photocopying facilities, which enable people simply to copy the articles they want rather than buying the journal.

    Which of the following, if it is true, would make this explanation more plausible?

    1. The great majority of professional and scholarly journals have a massive backlog of papers awaiting publication.
    2. Over the past five years there has been a substantial decline in the number of individual subscriptions to professional and scholarly journals, while library subscriptions have remained fairly stable.
    3. In the five years immediately preceding the price surge, there was a substantial decline in the number of individual subscriptions to professional and scholarly journals, while library subscriptions remained fairly stable.
    4. Many libraries have recently begun cutting back on subscriptions to professional and scholarly journals.
    5. In almost every field, several new professional and scholarly journals have begun publication in the past few years.

    Ans : C

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LSAT Sample Logical Reasoning Question Number : 1-10 | 11-20 | 21-30 | 31-38
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