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Verbal Section : Reading Comprehension

Read the given passage carefully and select the correct answer from the given options for the questions below.

Cosmetics are the substance or preparation intended for placement in contact with any external part of the human body. However, this definition can include a variety of products and product forms. They include various chemical entities of which some are naturally derived; while some are synthetically derived. They are generally used for enhancement of the appearance. Cosmetics in the united States are purely under the regulation of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and it defines the cosmetics as the products intended to be applied on the human body for cleansing, beatifying and promoting the attractiveness. Use of cosmetics alter the body appearance without changing body's structure and functions. Soap is not considered as a cosmetic agent as per the FDA.

A feeling of anxiety, need for self-presentation, conformity, etc., are the factors that make women use cosmetics. Social confidence, emotional stability, physical attractiveness and self-esteem are attained when a woman uses cosmetics according to a survey. The survey also suggests that anxious, insecure females are often motivated to apply cosmetics more as compared to females who are emotionally secure, socially confident and already perceive themselves as physically attractive.

There are different types of Cosmetics:

Mascara, Eyeliner, Eyeshadow, Eye Shimmer are the cosmetics used for eyes; while Lipstick, Lip Gloss, Lip Pencil or Lip Liner, Lip Plumper are the cosmetics used for lips. Foundation, Powder, Concealer, Bronzer are often applied on the face and Blusher or Rouge is applied on cheeks. Nail varnish is often used for beautifying nails. Although there are so many types of cosmetic products, the basic cosmetic formulas behind them are only 10. There are total 10 kinds of cosmetic product forms which are meant to be used at different times. This is a brief overview of these 10 product forms or categories of cosmetics -

  1. Solutions

    A solution cosmetic is a homogeneous mixture of soluble ingredients. These are prepared by simply filling the containers with main diluent (usually water) and mixing with the other ingredients to create the resultant cosmetic product. They can be found in the form of shampoos, body wash, hand cleansers, mascaras, eye liners, colognes, etc.

  2. Creams / Emulsions

    Creams or emulsions are most preferred cosmetics. These are pseudo stable mixtures of immiscible liquids dispersed in another liquid. Creams and emulsions are prepared by combining three formula components, such as oil phase, aqueous phase and an emulsifier. Cosmetics like hand moisturizers, make up, hair conditioners, sunscreens, etc. are all examples of creams or emulsions.

  3. Lotions

    Lotions are thin creams that undergo the same production procedure as that of creams. Moreover, they can easily be applied without worrying about them getting thick as opposed to emulsions that get thick on cooling down. A few examples of lotion cosmetics include facial moisturizers, leave-in hair conditioners and moisturizing cleansers.

  4. Ointments / Pastes

    Ointments or pastes are extremely thick products used for dressing hair and cleaning skin. They are, generally, anhydrous (contain no water), sticky and greasy.

  5. Suspensions

    Suspensions are cosmetics that are used for overcoming incompatible ingredients. Similar to creams, suspensions are clear solutions containing visible particles, such as gelatin beads or inorganic minerals, spread throughout. Sunscreens, hand washes and shampoos are some such examples.

  6. Tablets

    Color cosmetics are, generally, found in the form of cakes, tablets or capsules. The solid ingredients are blended well with one another and pressed to get the desired shape. They are usually more expensive as they require special equipment for creating them

  7. Powders

    Powders are the most common and popular form of cosmetic products. They are an amalgamation of solid raw materials which are ground together to get a fine powder. Products like baby powder, eye powder, foot powder, talcum powder, etc. are some examples of this kind.

  8. Gels

    Gels are thick, clear products characterized by a property known as “shear thinning”. That is, they are thick when new but get thin as you start applying force to use them. Common examples of gels include hair products, body washes, shaving products and toothpastes.

  9. Sticks

    Sticks are solid delivery forms that are delivered by rubbing them against the skin. These are usually manufactured by heating, melting, mixing and pouring solid ingredients into a mold or final container, thereby allowing them to cool until they take the desired shape.

  10. Aerosols

    Aerosols have a specific formulation type. Aerosols are any cosmetic delivered from a pressurized can. They are composed of a concentrate and a propellant. Perfumes come in this category.

Questions:

  1. Who regulates the cosmetics across the United States?

    1. Red Cross 
    2. Drug and Cosmetic Regulatory Agency 
    3. FDA 
    4. Food and Drug Administration

    Correct answer: c

  2. According to a survey, women feel …...... after usage of cosmetics.

    1. Anxious 
    2. Confident 
    3. Conscious 
    4. Dull

    Correct answer: b

  3. How many formulas of the cosmetic product forms are there?

    1. 10 
    2. many

    Correct answer: a

  4. Sunscreens are included in the category of ….....

    1. creams 
    2. lotions 
    3. solutions 
    4. ointments

    Correct answer: a

  5. Anhydrous, sticky and greasy kind of cosmetics are known as ….....

    1. suspensions 
    2. lotions 
    3. gels 
    4. ointments

    Correct answer: d

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