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Verbal Section : Reading Comprehension

Please read the passage carefully and answer the questions by selecting the appropriate option out of the five option given below.

Rome is one of the oldest civilizations known to mankind, so much so that it is often referred to as 'eternal city'. According to modern historians the the civilization in the city started in 625 BC, but the Romans are of the belief that they date back to 723 BC. In the early days Rome was governed by kings, but not all were rulers, only seven of them actually ruled the kingdom. The Roman were liberal people They took over the powers and ruled their city. They appointed a council which is now known as 'senate' to administer the kingdom and since then it was called 'Roman Republic'.

In fact the word 'Republic' has its origin in the Latin which is the language in which the Romans communicated. The word originates from 'res publica' which means public affairs or matters of state. The Roman Society was divided into four classes. The 'slaves' belonged to the lowest class that were owned by the people of Rome and had no rights. The next class was that of 'plebeians' who were free but had no or little power, the common citizens of the city. The second highest class in the Romans were the 'equestrians', they are also referred to as 'Knights', which means riders. They were the fighters of the kingdom and were given horses in the war. The highest class belonged to the noble family called 'patricians'. All the powers of the Roman kingdom was possessed by them.

The Roman Republic government is considered to be the most successful government and it lasted for almost 500 years between 510 BC to 23 BC. In comparison the US has been a republic for less than 250 years from 1776. Carthaginians were the biggest challenge for the Roman Empire; Carthage was a city in North Africa which was governed by the people of the city similar to Rome and was very powerful. The two cities fought for many years on land and sea. Hannibal, general of the Carthaginians crossed the Alps with his troops and war elephant to invade Italy, but was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC.

Julius Caesar is undoubtedly the most famous personality of Rome and in 49 BC he crossed the Rubicon river to invade Italy, but went on to conquer Rome and was the dictator of the kingdom after that. The Romans respected him so much that they named a calender month after him, July (Julius). When the great migration took place in Europe it was too much for the Roman Empire as their army was built to defeat enemies and not to fight people coming towards them. Visigoth Odoacer and his men conquered Rome in 476 AD and the great empire collapsed.

But the 'Fall of Roman Empire' is a term vaguely used because it it does not include the eastern province with Constantinople as its center. This province existed for almost a thousand more years until it was defeated by the Turks in 1453 AD, the battle was lead by the Turkestan General Mohammed II. Constantine was the last emperor of Constantinople who died in the war against the Turks.

Questions

  1. According to modern historians, when did the Roman Civilization start?

    1. 625 BC
    2. 723 BC
    3. 510 BC
    4. 23 BC
    5. 49 BC

    Answer : (a)

  2. Which class of the Roman Civilization has been described as common citizens in the passage?

    1. Slaves
    2. Knights
    3. Patricians
    4. Plebeians
    5. Equestrians

    Answer: (d)

  3. Which civilization was the biggest challenge to the Romans, according to the author?

    1. Italian
    2. Carthaginians
    3. European
    4. Turkestan
    5. Barbarian

    Answer: (b)

  4. Who was  the general of  Carthaginians, who led his troops across the Alps to invade Rome?

    1. Julius Caesar
    2. Constantine
    3. Hannibal
    4. Mohammed II
    5. Constantine

    Answer: (c)

  5. According to the passage, which event in Europe led to the fall of the Roman Empire?

    1. War with the Turks
    2. Carthaginian War
    3. Julius Caesar becoming the dictator of Rome
    4. Great Migration
    5. Death of Constantine

    Answer: (d)

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